Jul 19, 2014

How to format datetime & date in Sql Server

Execute the following Microsoft SQL Server T-SQL datetime and date formatting scripts in Management Studio Query Editor to demonstrate the multitude of temporal data formats available in SQL Server.
First we start with the conversion options available for sql datetime formats with century (YYYY or CCYY format). Subtracting 100 from the Style (format) number will transform dates without century (YY). For example Style 103 is with century, Style 3 is without century. The default Style values – Style 0 or 100, 9 or 109, 13 or 113, 20 or 120, and 21 or 121 – always return the century (yyyy) format.

– Microsoft SQL Server T-SQL date and datetime formats
– Date time formats – mssql datetime 
– MSSQL getdate returns current system date and time in standard internal format
SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 100) – mon dd yyyy hh:mmAM (or PM)
                                        – Oct  2 2008 11:01AM          
SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 101) – mm/dd/yyyy 10/02/2008                  
SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 102) yyyy.mm.dd – 2008.10.02           
SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 103) – dd/mm/yyyy
SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 104) dd.mm.yyyy
SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 105) – dd-mm-yyyy
SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 106) – dd mon yyyy
SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 107) – mon dd, yyyy
SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 108) – hh:mm:ss
SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 109) – mon dd yyyy hh:mm:ss:mmmAM (or PM)
                                        – Oct  2 2008 11:02:44:013AM   
SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 110) – mm-dd-yyyy
SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 111) – yyyy/mm/dd
SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 112) – yyyymmdd
SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 113) – dd mon yyyy hh:mm:ss:mmm
                                        – 02 Oct 2008 11:02:07:577     
SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 114) – hh:mm:ss:mmm(24h)
SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 120) – yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss(24h)
SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 121) – yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss.mmm
SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 126) – yyyy-mm-ddThh:mm:ss.mmm
                                        – 2008-10-02T10:52:47.513
– SQL create different date styles with t-sql string functions
SELECT replace(convert(varchar, getdate(), 111), ‘/’, ‘ ‘) – yyyy mm dd
SELECT convert(varchar(7), getdate(), 126)                 – yyyy-mm
SELECT right(convert(varchar, getdate(), 106), 8)          – mon yyyy
————
– SQL Server date formatting function – convert datetime to string
————
– SQL datetime functions
– SQL Server date formats
– T-SQL convert dates
– Formatting dates sql server
CREATE FUNCTION dbo.fnFormatDate (@Datetime DATETIME, @FormatMask VARCHAR(32))
RETURNS VARCHAR(32)
AS
BEGIN
    DECLARE @StringDate VARCHAR(32)
    SET @StringDate = @FormatMask
    IF (CHARINDEX (‘YYYY’,@StringDate) > 0)
       SET @StringDate = REPLACE(@StringDate, ‘YYYY’,
                         DATENAME(YY, @Datetime))
    IF (CHARINDEX (‘YY’,@StringDate) > 0)
       SET @StringDate = REPLACE(@StringDate, ‘YY’,
                         RIGHT(DATENAME(YY, @Datetime),2))
    IF (CHARINDEX (‘Month’,@StringDate) > 0)
       SET @StringDate = REPLACE(@StringDate, ‘Month’,
                         DATENAME(MM, @Datetime))
    IF (CHARINDEX (‘MON’,@StringDate COLLATE SQL_Latin1_General_CP1_CS_AS)>0)
       SET @StringDate = REPLACE(@StringDate, ‘MON’,
                         LEFT(UPPER(DATENAME(MM, @Datetime)),3))
    IF (CHARINDEX (‘Mon’,@StringDate) > 0)
       SET @StringDate = REPLACE(@StringDate, ‘Mon’,
                                     LEFT(DATENAME(MM, @Datetime),3))
    IF (CHARINDEX (‘MM’,@StringDate) > 0)
       SET @StringDate = REPLACE(@StringDate, ‘MM’,
                  RIGHT(’0′+CONVERT(VARCHAR,DATEPART(MM, @Datetime)),2))
    IF (CHARINDEX (‘M’,@StringDate) > 0)
       SET @StringDate = REPLACE(@StringDate, ‘M’,
                         CONVERT(VARCHAR,DATEPART(MM, @Datetime)))
    IF (CHARINDEX (‘DD’,@StringDate) > 0)
       SET @StringDate = REPLACE(@StringDate, ‘DD’,
                         RIGHT(’0′+DATENAME(DD, @Datetime),2))
    IF (CHARINDEX (‘D’,@StringDate) > 0)
       SET @StringDate = REPLACE(@StringDate, ‘D’,
                                     DATENAME(DD, @Datetime))   
RETURN @StringDate
END
GO

– Microsoft SQL Server date format function test
– MSSQL formatting dates
SELECT dbo.fnFormatDate (getdate(), ‘MM/DD/YYYY’)           – 01/03/2012
SELECT dbo.fnFormatDate (getdate(), ‘DD/MM/YYYY’)           – 03/01/2012
SELECT dbo.fnFormatDate (getdate(), ‘M/DD/YYYY’)            – 1/03/2012
SELECT dbo.fnFormatDate (getdate(), ‘M/D/YYYY’)             – 1/3/2012
SELECT dbo.fnFormatDate (getdate(), ‘M/D/YY’)               – 1/3/12
SELECT dbo.fnFormatDate (getdate(), ‘MM/DD/YY’)             – 01/03/12
SELECT dbo.fnFormatDate (getdate(), ‘MON DD, YYYY’)         – JAN 03, 2012
SELECT dbo.fnFormatDate (getdate(), ‘Mon DD, YYYY’)         – Jan 03, 2012
SELECT dbo.fnFormatDate (getdate(), ‘Month DD, YYYY’)       – January 03, 2012
SELECT dbo.fnFormatDate (getdate(), ‘YYYY/MM/DD’)           – 2012/01/03
SELECT dbo.fnFormatDate (getdate(), ‘YYYYMMDD’)             – 20120103
SELECT dbo.fnFormatDate (getdate(), ‘YYYY-MM-DD’)           – 2012-01-03
– CURRENT_TIMESTAMP returns current system date and time in standard internal format
SELECT dbo.fnFormatDate (CURRENT_TIMESTAMP,YY.MM.DD)      – 12.01.03
GO
————

/***** SELECTED SQL DATE/DATETIME FORMATS WITH NAMES *****/

– SQL format datetime
– Default format: Oct 23 2006 10:40AM
SELECT [Default]=CONVERT(varchar,GETDATE(),100)

– US-Style format: 10/23/2006
SELECT [US-Style]=CONVERT(char,GETDATE(),101)

– ANSI format: 2006.10.23
SELECT [ANSI]=CONVERT(char,CURRENT_TIMESTAMP,102)

– UK-Style format: 23/10/2006
SELECT [UK-Style]=CONVERT(char,GETDATE(),103)

– German format: 23.10.2006
SELECT [German]=CONVERT(varchar,GETDATE(),104)

– ISO format: 20061023
SELECT ISO=CONVERT(varchar,GETDATE(),112)

– ISO8601 format: 2008-10-23T19:20:16.003
SELECT [ISO8601]=CONVERT(varchar,GETDATE(),126)
————

– SQL Server datetime formats
– Century date format MM/DD/YYYY usage in a query
– Format dates SQL Server 2005
SELECT TOP (1)
      SalesOrderID,
      OrderDate = CONVERT(char(10), OrderDate, 101),
      OrderDateTime = OrderDate
FROM AdventureWorks.Sales.SalesOrderHeader
/* Result

SalesOrderID      OrderDate               OrderDateTime
43697             07/01/2001          2001-07-01 00:00:00.000
*/

– SQL update datetime column
– SQL datetime DATEADD
UPDATE Production.Product
SET ModifiedDate=DATEADD(dd,1, ModifiedDate)
WHERE ProductID = 1001

– MM/DD/YY date format
– Datetime format sql
SELECT TOP (1)
      SalesOrderID,
      OrderDate = CONVERT(varchar(8), OrderDate, 1),
      OrderDateTime = OrderDate
FROM AdventureWorks.Sales.SalesOrderHeader
ORDER BY SalesOrderID desc
/* Result

SalesOrderID      OrderDate         OrderDateTime
75123             07/31/04          2004-07-31 00:00:00.000
*/

– Combining different style formats for date & time
– Datetime formats
– Datetime formats sql
DECLARE @Date DATETIME
SET @Date = ’2015-12-22 03:51 PM’
SELECT CONVERT(CHAR(10),@Date,110) + SUBSTRING(CONVERT(varchar,@Date,0),12,8)
– Result: 12-22-2015  3:51PM

– Microsoft SQL Server cast datetime to string
SELECT stringDateTime=CAST (getdate() as varchar)
– Result: Dec 29 2012  3:47AM
————
– SQL Server date and time functions overview
————
– SQL Server CURRENT_TIMESTAMP function
– SQL Server datetime functions
– local NYC – EST – Eastern Standard Time zone
– SQL DATEADD function – SQL DATEDIFF function
SELECT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP                        – 2012-01-05 07:02:10.577
– SQL Server DATEADD function
SELECT DATEADD(month,2,’2012-12-09′)            – 2013-02-09 00:00:00.000
– SQL Server DATEDIFF function
SELECT DATEDIFF(day,’2012-12-09′,’2013-02-09′)  – 62
– SQL Server DATENAME function
SELECT DATENAME(month,   ’2012-12-09′)          – December
SELECT DATENAME(weekday, ’2012-12-09′)          – Sunday
– SQL Server DATEPART function
SELECT DATEPART(month, ’2012-12-09′)            – 12
– SQL Server DAY function
SELECT DAY(’2012-12-09′)                        – 9
– SQL Server GETDATE function
– local NYC – EST – Eastern Standard Time zone
SELECT GETDATE()                                – 2012-01-05 07:02:10.577
– SQL Server GETUTCDATE function
– London – Greenwich Mean Time
SELECT GETUTCDATE()                             – 2012-01-05 12:02:10.577
– SQL Server MONTH function
SELECT MONTH(’2012-12-09′)                      – 12
– SQL Server YEAR function
SELECT YEAR(’2012-12-09′)                       – 2012


————
– T-SQL Date and time function application
– CURRENT_TIMESTAMP and getdate() are the same in T-SQL
————
– SQL first day of the month
– SQL first date of the month
– SQL first day of current month – 2012-01-01 00:00:00.000
SELECT DATEADD(dd,0,DATEADD(mm, DATEDIFF(mm,0,CURRENT_TIMESTAMP),0))
– SQL last day of the month
– SQL last date of the month
– SQL last day of current month – 2012-01-31 00:00:00.000
SELECT DATEADD(dd,-1,DATEADD(mm, DATEDIFF(mm,0,CURRENT_TIMESTAMP)+1,0))
– SQL first day of last month
– SQL first day of previous month – 2011-12-01 00:00:00.000
SELECT DATEADD(mm,-1,DATEADD(mm, DATEDIFF(mm,0,CURRENT_TIMESTAMP),0))
– SQL last day of last month
– SQL last day of previous month – 2011-12-31 00:00:00.000
SELECT DATEADD(dd,-1,DATEADD(mm, DATEDIFF(mm,0,DATEADD(MM,-1,GETDATE()))+1,0))
– SQL first day of next month – 2012-02-01 00:00:00.000
SELECT DATEADD(mm,1,DATEADD(mm, DATEDIFF(mm,0,CURRENT_TIMESTAMP),0))
– SQL last day of next month – 2012-02-28 00:00:00.000
SELECT DATEADD(dd,-1,DATEADD(mm, DATEDIFF(mm,0,DATEADD(MM,1,GETDATE()))+1,0))
GO
– SQL first day of a month – 2012-10-01 00:00:00.000
DECLARE @Date datetime; SET @Date = ’2012-10-23′
SELECT DATEADD(dd,0,DATEADD(mm, DATEDIFF(mm,0,@Date),0))
GO
– SQL last day of a month – 2012-03-31 00:00:00.000
DECLARE @Date datetime; SET @Date = ’2012-03-15′
SELECT DATEADD(dd,-1,DATEADD(mm, DATEDIFF(mm,0,@Date)+1,0))
GO
– SQL first day of year 
– SQL first day of the year  -  2012-01-01 00:00:00.000
SELECT DATEADD(yy, DATEDIFF(yy,0,CURRENT_TIMESTAMP), 0)
– SQL last day of year  
– SQL last day of the year   – 2012-12-31 00:00:00.000
SELECT DATEADD(yy,1, DATEADD(dd, -1, DATEADD(yy,
                     DATEDIFF(yy,0,CURRENT_TIMESTAMP), 0)))
– SQL last day of last year
– SQL last day of previous year   – 2011-12-31 00:00:00.000
SELECT DATEADD(dd,-1,DATEADD(yy,DATEDIFF(yy,0,CURRENT_TIMESTAMP), 0))
GO
– SQL calculate age in years, months, days
– SQL table-valued function
– SQL user-defined function – UDF
– SQL Server age calculation – date difference
– Format dates SQL Server 2008
USE AdventureWorks2008;
GO
CREATE FUNCTION fnAge  (@BirthDate DATETIME)
RETURNS @Age TABLE(Years  INT,
                   Months INT,
                   Days   INT)
AS
  BEGIN
    DECLARE  @EndDate     DATETIME, @Anniversary DATETIME
    SET @EndDate = Getdate()
    SET @Anniversary = Dateadd(yy,Datediff(yy,@BirthDate,@EndDate),@BirthDate)
    
    INSERT @Age
    SELECT Datediff(yy,@BirthDate,@EndDate) - (CASE
                                                 WHEN @Anniversary > @EndDate THEN 1
                                                 ELSE 0
                                               END), 0, 0
     UPDATE @Age     SET    Months = Month(@EndDate - @Anniversary) - 1
    UPDATE @Age     SET    Days = Day(@EndDate - @Anniversary) - 1
    RETURN
  END
GO

– Test table-valued UDF
SELECT * FROM   fnAge(’1956-10-23′)
SELECT * FROM   dbo.fnAge(’1956-10-23′)
/* Results
Years       Months      Days
52          4           1
*/

———-
– SQL date range between
———-
– SQL between dates
USE AdventureWorks;
– SQL between
SELECT POs=COUNT(*) FROM Purchasing.PurchaseOrderHeader
WHERE OrderDate BETWEEN ’20040301′ AND ’20040315′
– Result: 108

– BETWEEN operator is equivalent to >=…AND….<=
SELECT POs=COUNT(*) FROM Purchasing.PurchaseOrderHeader
WHERE OrderDate
BETWEEN ’2004-03-01 00:00:00.000′ AND ’2004-03-15  00:00:00.000′
/*
Orders with OrderDates
’2004-03-15  00:00:01.000′  – 1 second after midnight (12:00AM)
’2004-03-15  00:01:00.000′  – 1 minute after midnight
’2004-03-15  01:00:00.000′  – 1 hour after midnight

are not included in the two queries above.
*/
– To include the entire day of 2004-03-15 use the following two solutions
SELECT POs=COUNT(*) FROM Purchasing.PurchaseOrderHeader
WHERE OrderDate >= ’20040301′ AND OrderDate < ’20040316′

– SQL between with DATE type (SQL Server 2008)
SELECT POs=COUNT(*) FROM Purchasing.PurchaseOrderHeader
WHERE CONVERT(DATE, OrderDate) BETWEEN ’20040301′ AND ’20040315′
———-
– Non-standard format conversion: 2011 December 14
– SQL datetime to string
SELECT [YYYY Month DD] =
CAST(YEAR(GETDATE()) AS VARCHAR(4))+ ‘ ‘+
DATENAME(MM, GETDATE()) + ‘ ‘ +
CAST(DAY(GETDATE()) AS VARCHAR(2))

– Converting datetime to YYYYMMDDHHMMSS format: 20121214172638
SELECT replace(convert(varchar, getdate(),111),‘/’,) +
replace(convert(varchar, getdate(),108),‘:’,)

– Datetime custom format conversion to YYYY_MM_DD
select CurrentDate=rtrim(year(getdate())) + ‘_’ +
right(’0′ + rtrim(month(getdate())),2) + ‘_’ +
right(’0′ + rtrim(day(getdate())),2)

– Converting seconds to HH:MM:SS format
declare @Seconds int
set @Seconds = 10000
select TimeSpan=right(’0′ +rtrim(@Seconds / 3600),2) + ‘:’ +
right(’0′ + rtrim((@Seconds % 3600) / 60),2) + ‘:’ +
right(’0′ + rtrim(@Seconds % 60),2)
– Result: 02:46:40

– Test result
select 2*3600 + 46*60 + 40
– Result: 10000
– Set the time portion of a datetime value to 00:00:00.000
– SQL strip time from date
– SQL strip time from datetime
SELECT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP ,DATEADD(dd, DATEDIFF(dd, 0, CURRENT_TIMESTAMP), 0)
– Results: 2014-01-23 05:35:52.793 2014-01-23 00:00:00.000
/*******

VALID DATE RANGES FOR DATE/DATETIME DATA TYPES

SMALLDATETIME date range:
January 1, 1900 through June 6, 2079

DATETIME date range:
January 1, 1753 through December 31, 9999

DATETIME2 date range (SQL Server 2008):
January 1,1 AD through December 31, 9999 AD

DATE date range (SQL Server 2008):
January 1, 1 AD through December 31, 9999 AD

*******/
– Selecting with CONVERT into different styles
– Note: Only Japan & ISO styles can be used in ORDER BY
SELECT TOP(1)
     Italy  = CONVERT(varchar, OrderDate, 105)
   , USA    = CONVERT(varchar, OrderDate, 110)
   , Japan  = CONVERT(varchar, OrderDate, 111)
   , ISO    = CONVERT(varchar, OrderDate, 112)
FROM AdventureWorks.Purchasing.PurchaseOrderHeader
ORDER BY PurchaseOrderID DESC
/* Results
Italy       USA         Japan       ISO
25-07-2004  07-25-2004  2004/07/25  20040725
*/
– SQL Server convert date to integer
DECLARE @Datetime datetime
SET @Datetime = ’2012-10-23 10:21:05.345′
SELECT DateAsInteger = CAST (CONVERT(varchar,@Datetime,112) as INT)
– Result: 20121023

– SQL Server convert integer to datetime
DECLARE @intDate int
SET @intDate = 20120315
SELECT IntegerToDatetime = CAST(CAST(@intDate as varchar) as datetime)
– Result: 2012-03-15 00:00:00.000
————
– SQL Server CONVERT script applying table INSERT/UPDATE
————
– SQL Server convert date
– Datetime column is converted into date only string column
USE tempdb;
GO
CREATE TABLE sqlConvertDateTime   (
            DatetimeCol datetime,
            DateCol char(8));
INSERT sqlConvertDateTime (DatetimeCol) SELECT GETDATE()

UPDATE sqlConvertDateTime
SET DateCol = CONVERT(char(10), DatetimeCol, 112)
SELECT * FROM sqlConvertDateTime

– SQL Server convert datetime
– The string date column is converted into datetime column
UPDATE sqlConvertDateTime
SET DatetimeCol = CONVERT(Datetime, DateCol, 112)
SELECT * FROM sqlConvertDateTime

– Adding a day to the converted datetime column with DATEADD
UPDATE sqlConvertDateTime
SET DatetimeCol = DATEADD(day, 1, CONVERT(Datetime, DateCol, 112))
SELECT * FROM sqlConvertDateTime

– Equivalent formulation
– SQL Server cast datetime
UPDATE sqlConvertDateTime
SET DatetimeCol = DATEADD(dd, 1, CAST(DateCol AS datetime))
SELECT * FROM sqlConvertDateTime
GO
DROP TABLE sqlConvertDateTime
GO
/* First results
DatetimeCol                   DateCol
2014-12-25 16:04:15.373       20141225 */

/* Second results:
DatetimeCol                   DateCol
2014-12-25 00:00:00.000       20141225  */

/* Third results:
DatetimeCol                   DateCol
2014-12-26 00:00:00.000       20141225  */
————
– SQL month sequence – SQL date sequence generation with table variable
– SQL Server cast string to datetime – SQL Server cast datetime to string
– SQL Server insert default values method
DECLARE @Sequence table (Sequence int identity(1,1))
DECLARE @i int; SET @i = 0
DECLARE @StartDate datetime;
SET @StartDate = CAST(CONVERT(varchar, year(getdate()))+
                 RIGHT(’0′+convert(varchar,month(getdate())),2) + ’01′ AS DATETIME)
WHILE ( @i < 120)
BEGIN
      INSERT @Sequence DEFAULT VALUES
      SET @i = @i + 1
END
SELECT MonthSequence = CAST(DATEADD(month, Sequence,@StartDate) AS varchar)
FROM @Sequence
GO
/* Partial results:
MonthSequence
Jan  1 2012 12:00AM
Feb  1 2012 12:00AM
Mar  1 2012 12:00AM
Apr  1 2012 12:00AM
*/
————

————
– SQL Server Server datetime internal storage
– SQL Server datetime formats
————
– SQL Server datetime to hex
SELECT Now=CURRENT_TIMESTAMP, HexNow=CAST(CURRENT_TIMESTAMP AS BINARY(8))
/* Results

Now                     HexNow
2009-01-02 17:35:59.297 0x00009B850122092D
*/
– SQL Server date part – left 4 bytes – Days since 1900-01-01
SELECT Now=DATEADD(DAY, CONVERT(INT, 0x00009B85), ’19000101′)
GO
– Result: 2009-01-02 00:00:00.000

– SQL time part – right 4 bytes – milliseconds since midnight
– 1000/300 is an adjustment factor
– SQL dateadd to Midnight
SELECT Now=DATEADD(MS, (1000.0/300)* CONVERT(BIGINT, 0x0122092D), ’2009-01-02′)
GO
– Result: 2009-01-02 17:35:59.290
————
————
– String date and datetime date&time columns usage
– SQL Server datetime formats in tables
————
USE tempdb;
SET NOCOUNT ON;
– SQL Server select into table create
SELECT TOP (5)
      FullName=convert(nvarchar(50),FirstName+‘ ‘+LastName),
      BirthDate = CONVERT(char(8), BirthDate,112),
      ModifiedDate = getdate()
INTO Employee
FROM AdventureWorks.HumanResources.Employee e
INNER JOIN AdventureWorks.Person.Contact c
ON c.ContactID = e.ContactID
ORDER BY EmployeeID
GO
– SQL Server alter table
ALTER TABLE Employee ALTER COLUMN FullName nvarchar(50) NOT NULL
GO
ALTER TABLE Employee
ADD CONSTRAINT [PK_Employee] PRIMARY KEY (FullName )
GO
/* Results

Table definition for the Employee table
Note: BirthDate is string date (only)

CREATE TABLE dbo.Employee(
      FullName nvarchar(50) NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY,
      BirthDate char(8) NULL,
      ModifiedDate datetime NOT NULL
      )
*/
SELECT * FROM Employee ORDER BY FullName
GO
/* Results
FullName                BirthDate   ModifiedDate
Guy Gilbert             19720515    2009-01-03 10:10:19.217
Kevin Brown             19770603    2009-01-03 10:10:19.217
Rob Walters             19650123    2009-01-03 10:10:19.217
Roberto Tamburello      19641213    2009-01-03 10:10:19.217
Thierry D’Hers          19490829    2009-01-03 10:10:19.217
*/

– SQL Server age
SELECT FullName, Age = DATEDIFF(YEAR, BirthDate, GETDATE()),
       RowMaintenanceDate = CAST (ModifiedDate AS varchar)
FROM Employee ORDER BY FullName
GO
/* Results
FullName                Age   RowMaintenanceDate
Guy Gilbert             37    Jan  3 2009 10:10AM
Kevin Brown             32    Jan  3 2009 10:10AM
Rob Walters             44    Jan  3 2009 10:10AM
Roberto Tamburello      45    Jan  3 2009 10:10AM
Thierry D’Hers          60    Jan  3 2009 10:10AM
*/

– SQL Server age of Rob Walters on specific dates
– SQL Server string to datetime implicit conversion with DATEADD
SELECT AGE50DATE = DATEADD(YY, 50, ’19650123′)
GO
– Result: 2015-01-23 00:00:00.000

– SQL Server datetime to string, Italian format for ModifiedDate
– SQL Server string to datetime implicit conversion with DATEDIFF
SELECT FullName,
         AgeDEC31 = DATEDIFF(YEAR, BirthDate, ’20141231′),
         AgeJAN01 = DATEDIFF(YEAR, BirthDate, ’20150101′),
         AgeJAN23 = DATEDIFF(YEAR, BirthDate, ’20150123′),
         AgeJAN24 = DATEDIFF(YEAR, BirthDate, ’20150124′),
       ModDate = CONVERT(varchar, ModifiedDate, 105)
FROM Employee
WHERE FullName = ‘Rob Walters’
ORDER BY FullName
GO
/* Results
Important Note: age increments on Jan 1 (not as commonly calculated)

FullName    AgeDEC31    AgeJAN01    AgeJAN23    AgeJAN24    ModDate
Rob Walters 49          50          50          50          03-01-2009
*/

————
– SQL combine integer date & time into datetime
————
– Datetime format sql
– SQL stuff
DECLARE @DateTimeAsINT TABLE ( ID int identity(1,1) primary key, 
   DateAsINT int, 
   TimeAsINT int 
) 
– NOTE: leading zeroes in time is for readability only!  
INSERT @DateTimeAsINT (DateAsINT, TimeAsINT) VALUES (20121023, 235959)  
INSERT @DateTimeAsINT (DateAsINT, TimeAsINT) VALUES (20121023, 010204)  
INSERT @DateTimeAsINT (DateAsINT, TimeAsINT) VALUES (20121023, 002350)
INSERT @DateTimeAsINT (DateAsINT, TimeAsINT) VALUES (20121023, 000244)  
INSERT @DateTimeAsINT (DateAsINT, TimeAsINT) VALUES (20121023, 000050)  
INSERT @DateTimeAsINT (DateAsINT, TimeAsINT) VALUES (20121023, 000006)  

SELECT DateAsINT, TimeAsINT,
  CONVERT(datetime, CONVERT(varchar(8), DateAsINT) + ‘ ‘+
  STUFF(STUFF ( RIGHT(REPLICATE(’0′, 6) + CONVERT(varchar(6), TimeAsINT), 6),
                  3, 0, ‘:’), 6, 0, ‘:’))  AS DateTimeValue
FROM   @DateTimeAsINT 
ORDER BY ID
GO
/* Results
DateAsINT   TimeAsINT   DateTimeValue
20121023    235959      2012-10-23 23:59:59.000
20121023    10204       2012-10-23 01:02:04.000
20121023    2350        2012-10-23 00:23:50.000
20121023    244         2012-10-23 00:02:44.000
20121023    50          2012-10-23 00:00:50.000
20121023    6           2012-10-23 00:00:06.000
*/
————

– SQL Server string to datetime, implicit conversion with assignment
UPDATE Employee SET ModifiedDate = ’20150123′
WHERE FullName = ‘Rob Walters’
GO
SELECT ModifiedDate FROM Employee WHERE FullName = ‘Rob Walters’
GO
– Result: 2015-01-23 00:00:00.000

/* SQL string date, assemble string date from datetime parts  */
– SQL Server cast string to datetime – sql convert string date
– SQL Server number to varchar conversion
– SQL Server leading zeroes for month and day
– SQL Server right string function
UPDATE Employee SET BirthDate =
      CONVERT(char(4),YEAR(CAST(’1965-01-23′ as DATETIME)))+
      RIGHT(’0′+CONVERT(varchar,MONTH(CAST(’1965-01-23′ as DATETIME))),2)+
      RIGHT(’0′+CONVERT(varchar,DAY(CAST(’1965-01-23′ as DATETIME))),2)
      WHERE FullName = ‘Rob Walters’
GO
SELECT BirthDate FROM Employee WHERE FullName = ‘Rob Walters’
GO
– Result: 19650123

– Perform cleanup action
DROP TABLE Employee
– SQL nocount
SET NOCOUNT OFF;
GO
————
————
– sql isdate function
————
USE tempdb;
– sql newid – random sort
SELECT top(3) SalesOrderID,
stringOrderDate = CAST (OrderDate AS varchar)
INTO DateValidation
FROM AdventureWorks.Sales.SalesOrderHeader
ORDER BY NEWID()
GO
SELECT * FROM DateValidation
/* Results
SalesOrderID      stringOrderDate
56720             Oct 26 2003 12:00AM
73737             Jun 25 2004 12:00AM
70573             May 14 2004 12:00AM
*/
– SQL update with top
UPDATE TOP(1) DateValidation
SET stringOrderDate = ‘Apb 29 2004 12:00AM’
GO
– SQL string to datetime fails without validation
SELECT SalesOrderID, OrderDate = CAST (stringOrderDate as datetime)
FROM DateValidation
GO
/* Msg 242, Level 16, State 3, Line 1
The conversion of a varchar data type to a datetime data type resulted in an
out-of-range value.
*/
– sql isdate – filter for valid dates
SELECT SalesOrderID, OrderDate = CAST (stringOrderDate as datetime)
FROM DateValidation
WHERE ISDATE(stringOrderDate) = 1
GO
/* Results
SalesOrderID      OrderDate
73737             2004-06-25 00:00:00.000
70573             2004-05-14 00:00:00.000
*/
– SQL drop table
DROP TABLE DateValidation
Go

————
– SELECT between two specified dates – assumption TIME part is 00:00:00.000
————
– SQL datetime between
– SQL select between two dates
SELECT EmployeeID, RateChangeDate
FROM AdventureWorks.HumanResources.EmployeePayHistory
WHERE RateChangeDate >= ’1997-11-01′ AND 
      RateChangeDate < DATEADD(dd,1,’1998-01-05′)
GO
/* Results
EmployeeID  RateChangeDate
3           1997-12-12 00:00:00.000
4           1998-01-05 00:00:00.000
*/

/* Equivalent to

– SQL datetime range
SELECT EmployeeID, RateChangeDate
FROM AdventureWorks.HumanResources.EmployeePayHistory
WHERE RateChangeDate >= ’1997-11-01 00:00:00′ AND 
      RateChangeDate <  ’1998-01-06 00:00:00′
GO
*/
————
– SQL datetime language setting
– SQL Nondeterministic function usage – result varies with language settings
SET LANGUAGE  ‘us_english’;  –– Jan 12 2015 12:00AM 
SELECT US = convert(VARCHAR,convert(DATETIME,’01/12/2015′));
SET LANGUAGE  ‘British’;     –– Dec  1 2015 12:00AM 
SELECT UK = convert(VARCHAR,convert(DATETIME,’01/12/2015′));
SET LANGUAGE  ‘German’;      –– Dez  1 2015 12:00AM 
SET LANGUAGE  ‘Deutsch’;     –– Dez  1 2015 12:00AM 
SELECT Germany = convert(VARCHAR,convert(DATETIME,’01/12/2015′));
SET LANGUAGE  ‘French’;      –– déc  1 2015 12:00AM 
SELECT France = convert(VARCHAR,convert(DATETIME,’01/12/2015′));
SET LANGUAGE  ‘Spanish’;     –– Dic  1 2015 12:00AM 
SELECT Spain = convert(VARCHAR,convert(DATETIME,’01/12/2015′));
SET LANGUAGE  ‘Hungarian’;   –– jan 12 2015 12:00AM 
SELECT Hungary = convert(VARCHAR,convert(DATETIME,’01/12/2015′));
SET LANGUAGE  ‘us_english’;
GO
————
————
– Function for Monday dates calculation
————
USE AdventureWorks2008;
GO
– SQL user-defined function
– SQL scalar function – UDF
CREATE FUNCTION fnMondayDate
               (@Year          INT,
                @Month         INT,
                @MondayOrdinal INT)
RETURNS DATETIME
AS
  BEGIN
    DECLARE  @FirstDayOfMonth CHAR(10),
             @SeedDate        CHAR(10)
    
    SET @FirstDayOfMonth = convert(VARCHAR,@Year) + ‘-’ + convert(VARCHAR,@Month) + ‘-01′
    SET @SeedDate = ’1900-01-01′
    
    RETURN DATEADD(DD,DATEDIFF(DD,@SeedDate,DATEADD(DD,(@MondayOrdinal * 7) - 1,
                  @FirstDayOfMonth)) / 7 * 7,  @SeedDate)
  END
GO

– Test Datetime UDF
– Third Monday in Feb, 2015
SELECT dbo.fnMondayDate(2016,2,3)
– 2015-02-16 00:00:00.000

– First Monday of current month
SELECT dbo.fnMondayDate(Year(getdate()),Month(getdate()),1)
– 2009-02-02 00:00:00.000  
————

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